What does being a man entail? This is a question that many cultures and periods have posed and answered differently. Fiction is a strong source of inspiration and influence in this question. Fiction, whether oral storytelling, written texts, or visual media, has the power to build and challenge masculinity stereotypes, norms, and ideals. Fiction may also depict men's dreams, concerns, and challenges as they negotiate their social positions and identities.
In this article, we will trace the evolution of masculinity through fiction from the ancient world to the present day. We will examine how fiction has molded and reflected evolving ideas about masculinity in various historical contexts and how it has contributed to the range and complexity of male manifestations.
The Different Genres Of Fiction And Evolving Masculinity
Ancient and Classical Fiction: The Heroic Ideal
The epic, a large narrative poem that chronicles a hero's actions and adventures, was one of the earliest and most prominent forms of literature. The epic hero is often a warrior, a leader, and a representation of his society and ideals. He is frequently blessed with tremendous power, courage, and intellect and meets formidable opponents and obstacles. He is also fallible, prone to pride, rage, and arrogance, and bears the repercussions of his deeds.
Some of the most famous examples of epic heroes are Gilgamesh from Mesopotamia, Achilles and Odysseus from Greece, Aeneas from Rome, and Beowulf from Anglo-Saxon England.
Medieval and Renaissance Fiction: The Chivalrous Knight
Another influential form of fiction is the romance, a genre that emerged in the Middle Ages and flourished in the Renaissance. The romance narrative focuses on the adventures and love affairs of a knight and a lady, often in a fantastical or historical setting. The romance knight is a descendant of the epic hero. Still, he is also influenced by the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct that governs the behavior of the medieval warrior class. The chivalrous knight is a brave, skilled fighter and a loyal and courteous servant of his lord, lady, and God. He also seeks adventure, honor, and fame as he travels the world, encounters various challenges and wonders, and proves his worth and virtue.
Some of the most famous examples of romance knights are King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table from Britain, Charlemagne and his paladins from France, Amadis of Gaul and his descendants from Spain, and Orlando and his peers from Italy.
Enlightenment and Romantic Fiction: The Rational Gentleman
The novel is a new form of fiction that emerged in the 18th and 19th centuries. This genre depicts the realistic and psychological aspects of the lives and characters of ordinary people, often in a social and historical context. The novel gentleman is a descendant of the romance knight, but the ideals of the Enlightenment and Romanticism also influence him.
These two intellectual and cultural movements shaped the modern world. The enlightened gentleman is rational and educated, using his reason and knowledge to understand and improve himself and society. He is also moral and virtuous, following his conscience and natural law. The romantic gentleman is a passionate and creative individual who expresses his emotions and imagination through art and literature.
Some of the most famous examples of novel gentlemen are Robinson Crusoe and Gulliver from Britain, Candide and the Count of Monte Cristo from France, Don Quixote and Lazarillo de Tormes from Spain, and Faust and Werther from Germany.
Postmodern and Contemporary Fiction: The Diverse and Fluid Masculinity
A form of fiction that emerged in the second half of the 20th century and continues in the 21st century is the postmodern novel. This genre challenges and plays with the conventions and assumptions of traditional and modern novels, often using metafictional and intertextual devices and strategies. The postmodern gentleman is a descendant of the modern gentleman. Still, he is also influenced by the ideals and issues of the postmodern and the contemporary eras, two historical and cultural periods that witnessed globalization, digitalization, multiculturalism, and the social and environmental movements of the time.
The postmodern gentleman is a diverse and fluid individual who embraces and experiments with the diversity and hybridity of his identity and reality. He is also a self-conscious and playful individual who acknowledges and questions the fictionality and intertextuality of his narrative and representation.
Some of the most famous examples of postmodern gentlemen are Humbert Humbert and Lolita from America, Salman Rushdie and Midnight’s Children from India, and Haruki Murakami and The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle from Japan.
Victorian and Modernist Fiction: The Crisis of Masculinity
The modern novel is a form of fiction that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This genre reflects the complexity and diversity of the modern world and the modern self, often using experimental and innovative techniques and styles. The modern gentleman is a descendant of the novel gentleman.
The Victorian gentleman is a respectable and successful individual who adheres to his class and nation's moral and social codes. He is also a conflicted and hypocritical individual who conceals and represses his darker and deeper impulses and desires. The Modernist gentleman is a disillusioned and alienated individual who rejects and questions the values and traditions of his society and culture. He is also fragmented and complex, exploring and experimenting with his identity and reality.
The most famous examples of modern gentlemen are Sherlock Holmes and Dracula from Britain, Jean Valjean and Edmond Dantès from France, Gregor Samsa and Josef K. from Germany, and Jay Gatsby and Holden Caulfield from America.
Fiction is a powerful and influential source of inspiration and influence for the question of masculinity. Fiction has shaped and reflected the changing notions of masculinity in different historical and cultural contexts and contributed to the diversity and complexity of masculine expressions. Fiction has also revealed men's hopes, fears, and struggles as they navigate their societal roles and identities. It can also challenge and critique masculinity's stereotypes, norms, and ideals and create and propose new and alternative ways of being a man. Fiction can also enrich and entertain us with its creativity, imagination, and innovation, and it can stimulate and provoke us with its criticality.
Written By: Khushi Bhatia
Edited By: Chirajita Gupta